Back in 2016 when I wrote the original PMS article Docker was a fairly new kid on the block. Fast forward 5 years and containerisation has cemented itself as a major force in the industry.
For those looking to build a media server, containers offer a uniquely brilliant way to run applications. They divorce the running application from its data whilst making managing their persistent data and configuration simple.
Why should I use containers?¶
We'll come onto what a container is shortly but first let's discuss why you might consider using them.
My lightbulb moment with docker came a few years ago after I'd reinstalled my server OS. I'd got everything just the way I liked it, all the apps were working great but an update borked something and I had to reload. However, this time, I was using docker for my applications, stored their data in volumes1 and kept a text file with each command I'd use to create the containers (this was pre docker-compose).
What normally followed reinstallation was a lengthy, often multi-day, process of getting things back to where they were. This time though, things were different. I copied each
docker run command and I was back up and running within 10 minutes, I was done. That was it, the game changed that day.
This was because the configuration data for the applications was stored in a separate location via a volume1 bind mount. Backing up configuration was nothing new but that this happened by design meant I'd taken a leap forward in deployment reliability and repeatability.
Traditionally when an application is installed onto a system it has access to the entire thing. Permissions help to some degree but a container has zero access to the system around it unless explicitly granted. This level of granular control is very useful when running multiple versions of the same application or if you don't quite trust it will do what it said on the tin.
Beyond the fact that separating the application runtime from its configuration makes the above scenario possible containers also provide a number of other benefits. These range from portability to standardisation to security to employability.
What is a container?¶
A container is an application in a box. A few years ago, the Linux kernel added some features called namespaces and cgroups which enable isolating processes from each other. Therefore, in essence, a container is a process isolated in memory by the kernel.
This talk by James Bottomley at FOSDEM 2016 was pivotal in my understanding of containers. He explains what cgroups and namespaces are in a way that is easy to understand and I highly suggest watching the recording of his talk linked here.
What this means for users is that dependency and resource clashes are a thing of the past. Need two slightly different versions of Java for two applications? No problem!
More than this, containers are more secure. They employ the principal of minimum viable permissions and unless you permit access into them, you are guaranteed by virtue of the kernel technology underneath that noone else can either.
My first container¶
For example, nginx is a popular web server - in fact it is serving this website to your eyeballs and is running in a container! Web servers use ports to listen for traffic, commonly port 80 or 443.
On a host with docker running, this command will create an nginx container and permit you access to port 80 where the web server is running by visiting
http://system-ip in your browser.
To stop a running container that you are attached to press Ctrl+C.
Try running the same command again but remove
-p 80:80. Notice how by removing the port option you are no longer permitted to access that container - it's kind of like port forwarding but it works for every container individually.
Running multiple versions of the same app¶
Suppose we wanted to run two webservers like so:
Notice that the second container uses port 81. This is because the command
-p 81:80 is actually mapping port 80 from inside the container to port 81 on the host. Ports mapped to the host must be unique but nginx can run on port 80 inside each container because each one is its own isolated environment.
Where do I get containers from?¶
Docker were first to market and hijacked the root namespace when you execute a
docker run command. As such, Docker Hub is the primary source for containers but Docker Inc. has been struggling to monetize the technology from the very beginning and the cracks are starting to show.
Some other notable registries include, but are not limited to:
I might be biased due to my prior involvement with the project but LinuxServer.io make the largest collection of media server type containers on the internet. At the time of writing their containers have seen over 14 billion pulls and you can find a full list of the available apps packaged by the team here.
How do I pick one container over another?¶
It's a common question I see, and a valid one.
The first place I always check is LinuxServer's Fleet list of images - if an LSIO image exists, job done. I'll always pick LSIO images first because of:
- Easy user mappings via
- Regular security and application updates
- A fully open and auditable build pipeline
- The documentation is great
- I wrote a few of them
If LSIO make a container as well as the upstream project then you might want to default to the upstream image.
But, almost all LSIO images support multiarch and some offer features that the officially provided containers don't such as hardware transcoding for Plex - I run the
linuxserver/plex image for integration with Intel QuickSync.
Next, I'll take a look at Docker Hub. If there are multiple images doing the same thing I'll look at the number of downloads - generally more is better but not always. I'll try and find the Dockerfile for the container in question - usually this is available on the Docker Hub page but not always (I'll avoid Dockerfile-less containers as I have little clue what they're up to).
After those two resources are exhausted I might try and have a go at writing a Dockerfile myself. If the app is uncooperative or poorly written I'll probably give up and try to find a different app instead - there's always another.
For an incredible list of inspiration, check out awesome-selfhosted on GitHub.
What about podman?¶
Podman is a daemonless container engine for your Linux system. The project claims that
alias docker=podman is the hardest part of switching but in my testing podman still has a way to go to match docker in a few areas.
The first is full on compose support. That is defining your stack of containers in a yaml file declaritively and repeatably. The podman-compose is working on improving compatibility here but I've not found it to be a reliable, production ready replacement for docker-compose quite yet.
Second are builds. At work the other day I built a container from a Dockerfile with both podman on Fedora and docker on Arch - each of those container images came out at vastly different finished sizes. The podman image was 1.4gb whilst the docker image was less than 350mb.
Third is the community effect. Everyone in the media server space is using docker. It's the kleenex of containers and I don't see that changing anytime soon. Yes both projects tout OCI compatibility but there are some differences under the hood in how the two projects are wired which leads to inconsistencies. There's also a general lack of knowledge amongst those who freely donate their time to help others so it's a bit of a chicken and egg problem this one.
Podman is aimed at a different primary usecase, Kubernetes. This project is definitely one to keep an eye on though so who knows, maybe the 2021 post will proclaim that podman is ready for primetime.